LearnBulletproof backups for MySQL


writes on February 4, 2010

You have all your important data backed up, right? I mean, come on folks, it’s 2010. We may not have flying cars yet like we’re supposed to, but “having backups” is a problem that’s solved. And I’m sure you’ve solved it. I’m sure you sleep well at night knowing that if a comet hit the data center where your website lives, and everything was completely destroyed, you could get back up and running somewhere else quickly enough.

Except that the chance this is actually true for you, statistically, is very small. If we look at the statistics, then what we see is that people are storing increasing amounts of things, important things even, online because disks keep getting bigger and cheaper (though sadly not much faster, but that’s a different article).

But despite this availability of cheap storage, people for the most part still don’t back things up. This isn’t universally true of course, there are some folks who have implemented really brilliant backup systems at their companies.

Of course, it helps when you have an amazing systems guy on your team who is made out of lighting bolts and awesomeness, taking care of the nitty gritty details for you. If, however, you are one of the many many people who doesn’t have a good backup strategy in place, this article is here to help you out.

I’ve written a shell script (Ed: please remove .txt extension before use) that will serve as a good starting point, and we’ll talk through it in a little bit. For now though, let’s discuss backups in a more general sense so we can decide what our end goals are.

Types of things to back up

There are lots of different kinds of data that you may need to back up. Three of the most common are:

  1. Source Code
  2. Static Files (images, PDFs, etc)
  3. Data in a Database

These days, there’s a good chance you have your source code files in an RCS system somewhere, such as GitHub. If you do (and you should), and your RCS system is on a different server or servers than your site, you already have your source code backed up. If your server catches on fire, you can just do a fresh checkout onto a new server. This is one of the many advantages of using an RCS system.

Static files, such as images or music or what have you, are easy to back up. A quick search will reveal dozens of different ways to ship this sort of data to some secondary place in case of emergency.

Database data, however, can be a little more tricky. You can’t just copy your binary data files safely while the database is running because if a write happens during the process, then your “backup” will be in an inconsistent state, which will probably render it useless.

Moreover, it’s not generally the best way to do a backup because restoring data from a binary copy can be tricky. What my shell script does is allow you to automate correctly backing up a standard MySQL database, or databases, with full end-to-end encryption to an offsite location.

Is my data backed Up?

This seems like an easy question to answer. In fact, it is a rather easy question to answer, but I’ve found that many people have never bothered to answer it, and it gets them in trouble. Are you doing backups of some sort currently? If so, does that mean you have backups? Actually, no, it doesn’t. If there is one golden rule of having backups that I hope you remember after reading this, it’s the following:

If your backup procedure doesn’t include instructions for doing a restore of the data, or if your restoration procedure has not been tested, then you don’t have backups.

Simply put, unless you know that you can reliably do a restoration of your data, you don’t have backups. If you haven’t tried, you don’t know. As an example, I once encountered a setup where an administrator was “backing up” several databases by using rsync to copy the binary data store to a remote machine once a day. He thought he had backups, and he was wrong.

As I noted before, if a write happens during the rsync process, those binary files aren’t guaranteed to be in a consistent state. If he’d ever tried to do a restore of those files (he hadn’t), he would have discovered this problem. So I say again, until you have tested a restore and it’s worked, and you’ve documented how to do that restore, you don’t have backups.

Another thing that I always like to stress is that you really, really want backups that are under as much personal control as possible. This typically means using a third party or offsite service distinct from your ISP to store your backups. If you ever need to restore some data, there’s a good chance it’s because something has gone wrong with your systems.

In that case, there’s also a fair chance that something has gone wrong at your ISP itself, so you’d rather not have your backups tied to your ISP. What you want is backups that are stored by some other company, preferably in an entirely different physical data center.

Basic process for setting up database backups

The steps I use to back up the databases for Virb are as follows:

  • Get a dump of the database
  • Compress the data
  • Encrypt the data
  • Send the data over an encrypted connection to an offsite service
  • Automate the entire procedure with a cron job

It’s nothing fancy, and it shouldn’t be. Fancy, intricate things tend to break, and this is the last thing you want to worry about breaking.


You’ll need to have a few things in place for this to all work. I’m assuming you’re using a reasonably new Debian style Linux distribution (which includes Ubuntu). You need to be able to use the mysqldump program to get a dump of the desired database data. This comes standard with the MySQL installations on every Linux distribution I know of.

I’m going to assume that you have a .my.cnf file set up in your home directory with a username and password that allow you to dump out the data you want. If you’ve never used a .my.cnf file before, it’s very easy. Create a file called .my.cnf in your home directory, and put the following in it:

user = dbusername
password = dbpassword

of course substituting the correct username and password for your systems. Then run chmod 600 $HOME/.my.cnf on the file so other people can’t read it. You can now use all the mysql* command line utilities without having to pass the -u and -p flags all the time.

Another assumption I’m making here is that you can safely run mysqldump at some point during the day, and this won’t mess anything on your site up, which practically means that you don’t have that much data. When you dump the database out, a write lock is placed on all the tables in that database (assuming you’re dumping out all the tables). So while the data is getting written out, reads can still happen, but no INSERTS, UPDATEs or DELETEs can.

If you have say a few hundred megabytes of binary data, usually located in /var/lib/mysql on Linux systems, you are probably okay just dumping the data out from whatever machine the database is on. On reasonably modern hardware, 300M of binary data takes about 15 seconds to dump out, for example. Having a write lock for 15 seconds in the middle of the night is not a big deal for most people.

If you have enough data that it really does take a long time, or your requirements are such that you can’t have a write lock happen even briefly, then the next option is to set up a mysql slave server that exists just for backups. The idea is that the slave is continuously replicating from the master.

When you do the backup on the slave, the write lock will happen there so that the data can get dumped out, and then once it’s finished the replication will catch back up to the master if it’s missed anything.

Explaining how to set up MySQL replication is beyond the scope of this article, but this “back up a slave” strategy is exactly what we do for Virb.

We’re going to be backing things up using the online back up service provided by IBackup. There are plenty of these sorts of services available, so if you want to use a different one feel free. Not much of what I’m going to describe is specific to IBackup. I have no particular affiliation to them, other than having used them for several projects and being pleased with their products and pricing. I’m going to assume you have an Economy plan with enough storage to hold your backups.

The only other assumptions I’l make are that you have stunnel4, rsync, and gpg installed. These are very standard, freely available programs. On reasonably recent Debian style systems (which include Ubuntu) you can install all of them by running this command as root:

apt-get update && apt-get install stunnel4 rsync gnupg

Setting up encryption

We are going to encrypt our database backups, and we’re going to transmit the encrypted files over a secure connection. This is technically overkill, but encryption is free and easy so we’ll do it anyway. The first thing you’ll need to do is generate GPG keys to use.

I’m not going to explain it here because this tutorial will take you all of five minutes to get through, and covers everything you’ll need. Just be sure to remember your passphrase, and put copies of your key files somewhere safe just in case.

You should now have GPG keys set up, and an account with IBackup, so create a file in your home directory called .ibackup with the following contents:


The reason for this file will become apparent shortly. Just substitute the username and password for your IBackup account there, and put in the email address that was used to generate your GPG keys. Be sure to run chmod 600 $HOME/.ibackup so that nobody else can see your password.

Now we need to do a little configuration for stunnel4. We don’t need it to be running all the time, so shut it down and make sure it doesn’t start on boot with the following commands:

/etc/init.d/stunnel4 stop
update-rc.d -f stunnel4 remove

Now let’s configure stunnel4 for IBackup. First get the default configuration file out of the way.

cd /etc/stunnel
mv stunnel.conf stunnel.conf-orig

Next, with your text editor of choice, create a file called ibackup.conf in the /etc/stunnel directory with the following contents:

client = yes
accept = 8455
connect = rsync4.ibackup.com:5000

These options are fairly specific to IBackup’s service, but other backup services have similar options. The accept option defines a local port for stunnel4 to use, so you don’t have to pick that particular one if, for some reason, it’s already in use.

Performing the backup

Since we have our security issues handled, we can now perform the backup. Open up that shell script (Ed: please remove .txt extension before use) I mentioned at the beginning in your text editor of choice, so we can go through it. The first 14 lines just get the names of databases we’re going to back up and identify the programs we’re going to use.


# ibackup.com destination

# database names

# binaries we need

If you’re not familiar with bash shell scripting, it’s not hard. Things like $1 and $2 indicate command line arguments that get passed to the script. So here, $1 is something we’re going to use in the name of the eventual backup file we’ll get, and $2 will hold the name(es) of the database(es) we will back up.

Things get more interesting from lines 23 to 39.


if [ ! -r $DOTIBACKUP ]; then
    echo "Need $DOTIBACKUP file for username and password!"
    exit 1
    PERMS=`/bin/ls -l $DOTIBACKUP | /usr/bin/awk '{print $1}'`

if [ $PERMS != "-rw-------" ]; then
    echo "Permissions on $DOTIBACKUP are wrong!"
    echo "Should be -rw-------, actually is $PERMS"
    exit 1


These commands check that the .ibackup file exists and has the correct permissions. If so, they source the file, which is to say they absorb the things that file defines into the running shell script. Then it sets the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to be the value of the IBACKUP_PASSWORD that you use to access the service.

Lines 41 and 42 grab the local port that stunnel4 needs in order to work.

# local stunnel4 port
STUNNEL_PORT=`/bin/grep 'accept' /etc/stunnel/ibackup.conf | awk '{print $3}'`

Next, between lines 44 and 49, we make make sure there’s a directory where we can dump out all of our data.

# place to dump everything

if [ ! -d $DUMPDIR ]; then
    mkdir $DUMPDIR

We’re eventually going to set this up to run daily, and if we’re doing a once-per-day backup, it’s nice to keep a few days’ worth around just in case. In lines 51 through 56 we use the very convenient *NIX date program to get date stamps for the current day, the previous day, and the day before that.

# today, for tagging the dumpfile
DATE=`/bin/date +%Y-%m-%d`

# yesterday, and the day before that
ONEDAYAGO=`/bin/date -d '1 day ago' +%Y-%m-%d`
TWODAYSAGO=`/bin/date -d '2 days ago' +%Y-%m-%d`

We’re almost ready to actually dump out our data now. Lines 58 to 86 are really boring and just make sure we have a destination name and the programs we need, so I’ll gloss over those. The important part picks between lines 88 and 92, where we go into our backup directory and actually run mysqldump.


echo -n "dumping $DB_NAMES to $DUMPDIR/$IBACKUP_DEST-$DATE.mysql... "
$MYSQLDUMP --opt --databases $DB_NAMES > $IBACKUP_DEST-$DATE.mysql
echo "done!"

Let’s take a look at that dump command to make sure we understand it. The $DB_NAMES variable was set earler in the script. It’s the second command line argument passwed to the script, and it tells mysqldump which databases we care about. The $IBACKUP_DEST variable, similarly, was the first command line argument passed to the script, and it just sets the part of the name of our dump file. Finally, the $DATE variable we just saw getting set a moment ago, and we use it as a date stamp for this dump.

Next, between lines 94 and 105, we compress and encrypt our dump file. We also check to make sure the encryption step actually worked and we exit out if not.

echo -n "gzipping $DUMPDIR/$IBACKUP_DEST-$DATE.mysql... "
echo "done!"

echo -n "encrypting $DUMPDIR/$IBACKUP_DEST-$DATE.mysql... "
echo "done!"

if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo "encryption failed!"
    exit 7

We do a little cleanup and start stunnel4 in lines 107 to 112, which are pretty self explanatory.

echo -n "removing $DUMPDIR/$IBACKUP_DEST-$DATE.mysql.gz... "
/bin/rm -fv $DUMPDIR/$IBACKUP_DEST-$DATE.mysql.gz
echo "done!"

echo "Starting stunnel for rsync..."
/etc/init.d/stunnel4 start

And now on line 114, we finally send our freshly made backup off to the remote servers managed by IBackup for safe keeping.

$RSYNC -r -v -z -t --delete-after --exclude $IBACKUP_DEST-$ONEDAYAGO* --exclude $IBACKUP_DEST-$TWODAYSAGO* $DUMPDIR/ $IBACKUP_USERNAME@localhost::ibackup/$IBACKUP_DEST --port $STUNNEL_PORT

This is using several different features of rsync so let’s talk about them so we know what is going on. The command line flags -r -v -z -t are what the folks at IBackup tell us to use when syncing things over to them. The --delete-after flag tells rsync to delete anything in the target directory that’s not in the local directory being sync’d. But we also have the two --exclude options there.

So what we’re really saying is “Keep the file we’re sending over, and the one from yesterday, and the day before that, but then delete everything else”. That way we always have the last three days’ worth of backups. The last point of interest is that because we tell rsync to use $STUNNEL_PORT, all the communication is encapsulated by stunnel4 and is therefore encrypted across the wire as it gets transferred. Whew!

The last few lines from 116 to 121 simply stop stunnel4 and clean up things by removing the directory we made to put the dump file into.

echo "Stopping stunnel for rsync..."
/etc/init.d/stunnel4 stop

echo -n "Cleaning up... "
/bin/rm -rfv $DUMPDIR
echo "done!"

So that should about do it. To find out, put this script somewhere and run chmod 755 db-backup.sh on it so it’s executable. Then test it to make sure it actually works. If you want the target to be called ‘mybackup’, and you have to back up the databases named ‘db1’, ‘db2’, and ‘db3’, you would invoke the script like this.

/path/to/db-backup.sh mybackup "db1 db2 db3"

If that works, then you are almost done! We just need to automate the process, which we can do trivially with a cron job. In your shell where you tested the script from, type the following:

crontab -e

This will put you into edit mode for your crontab. Assuming you want the backup to happen starting at 12:40am each day, put the following into your crontab file:

0 40 * * * /path/to/db-backup.sh mybackup "db1 db2 db3" >/dev/null 2>&1

Save the file, and then type crontab -l to list the crontab and make sure that line is in there. If it is, then there’s just one last thing to do.

Testing a restore

I said at the start of this article that if you haven’t done a restore, you don’t have backups. And seriously, I meant that. So if you’ve made it this far, then you must do one last step. The day after you set this up, you need to go to your IBackup account, download your dump file, decrypt it with the GPG key you made, and do a restore to a running MySQL instance.

Make sure you do this last step, as the consequences of missing it can be dire.

In conculsion

I covered quite a bit in this article, but if you make it through everything, you should be able to rest easier knowing that you have good, safe backups of your database. Although we used the IBackup service in these examples, very little of what I covered is specific to them.

If you wanted to use a different company, or maybe just push the backup files to a different server you have, you’ll probably just need to change some of the commands that you pass to rsync. The basic strategy though should’t have to change.

I hope you’re found this helpful, and don’t hesitate to get in touch if you have any questions.


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29 Responses to “Bulletproof backups for MySQL”

  1. Dan admin on February 23, 2011 at 9:52 am said:

    Thanks for sharing, if you want to save your time you can use backup software like Handy Backup, it’s easy to use and reliable MySQL backup software. Hot SQL database backup software for Windows.

  2. To avoid issues, I do a simple file test in my rsync cron script which gets deleted at the finish of the script. If the script gets run a second time it checks for the file, and aborts if found. This prevents multiple instances being run each day, which can cause issues for the initial long running backup.

  3. Great information. My concerns are managing my backups in bulk (if possible) With 100 + accounts on one server, it get very time consuming.

  4. I do our backups in a similar manner (and I *do* get to test using backups when clients go whoops!)

    How do I do it?

    Step 1:

    First is to backup the database(s) to the filesystem in a common folder.

    MySQL daily backups to a folder under /home/dbbackup for all DB’s using an easy to install backup shell script (automysqlbackup)


    apt-get install automysqlbackup on debian based systems.

    automysqlbackup gets run daily, and it automatically handles daily, weekly, monthly folders + rotation (no need to reinvent the wheel).

    Step 2:

    rsync my entire home folder system (which is where I store all my user specific data) to another server.

    This also runs daily (usually in our early 2am – 4am period).

    Step 3: Optional

    I also do a weekly backup of the complete backup folder to a different server so I have some “history”.

    To make it even safer, I also do a monthly offsite of the backups.

    Our specific setup is that
    I usually have a central backup server that I send data to (stuck on a spare drive on a less used web server).

    Secondary and Tertiary backup backups are run from that.

    Caveats – if your database is in iffy condition – eg latin1 encoding, with UTF-8 data, or similar, or crashed tables, the backup will not be 100%. automysqlbackup can be configured to email you on issues. encoding related ones will not be seen until a restore is attempted, but other issues will be.
    I have successfully restored even with “corrupt” encoding data, whether it was latin1 -> utf8 or utf8 double encoding. Does need some handholding though if that needs to happen.

    Having different snapshots of your data from different time periods (eg, daily, weekly, monthly) is important (and thats why I do it!).
    The number of times clients have come back with “oh I deleted something 2 weeks ago”, and I’ve been able to restore it has meant that they’re happy.

    That said, it does mean you need to use a whack of drives for backup purposes.

    In our case we only have 6 servers, and web + mysql takes roughly 600GB (still fairly easy to stick onto a single drive though). They are scattered around different / regions also, so it can take a few days to complete an initial backup if I deploy a new backup server.
    To avoid issues, I do a simple file test in my rsync cron script which gets deleted at the finish of the script. If the script gets run a second time it checks for the file, and aborts if found. This prevents multiple instances being run each day, which can cause issues for the initial long running backup.

  5. Excellent article. I have been using MySQL for quite sometime and have learned the importance of having regular good backups the hard way!

  6. Nice article on data backup. Making backups is a very important aspect in every IT pros career. Good work.

  7. Kristian on February 7, 2010 at 2:59 am said:

    First of all, thanks for the article it was very infromative! I really have to read more about the replication.

    And thanks for sharing the script, it’s a good starting point, but it isn’t too portable. For example:
    STUNNEL_PORT=`/bin/grep ‘accept’ /etc/stunnel/ibackup.conf | awk ‘{print $3}’`;

    What if the grep isn’t there 🙂 Not really a problem, because you will find that out soon enough 😀

    And if you want to risk some security, you could use which to find out binary paths.

    Juano already wrote about using stat command…

    And if I remember correctly, it’s better to use $(ls foo) syntax than `ls foo`.

    @Rob Morris
    Configuration files and version information are sometimes crucial, a very good point!

    • Kristian on February 7, 2010 at 3:27 am said:

      Thinking too slowly 😀

      I think, now I know why you wrote:
      STUNNEL_PORT=`/bin/grep ‘accept’ /etc/stunnel/ibackup.conf | awk ‘{print $3}’`;

      With $() command substitution you can use variables, so it make it more usable than backticks, for example:

      LSOUT=$($LSBIN -l);
      echo $LSOUT;

      So you can have variables for all the binaries.

  8. VERY IMPORTANT NOTE: This is a great discussion of MySQL DB backups, but the initial list of items to back up is missing two crucial items. Yes, you need your DB, static files and code, but don’t forget:

    – Configuration files – php.ini, httpd.conf, etc etc etc – these may have tons of tweaks added over several years. Recreating them right on a system rebuild can be hell.
    – Version information – Often, the versions of libraries, server software, etc. are critical, and again, if you keep the config files, you need a version of the software that can use that config file.

    Just a couple of notes from someone who has had to do full system rebuilds on more than one occasion. Great article, and good luck with those backups!

  9. PERMS=`/bin/ls -l $DOTIBACKUP | /usr/bin/awk ‘{print $1}’`

    stat is your friend!

    ie. stat -c %a $DOTIBACKUP will report the access permissions in octal.

    Another suggestion would be using rsync over SSH with password-less auth using RSA keys.

    • Yup, I actually have stat in the script I use. I put this in here so people could see the awk snippet that people use all the time since it’s really useful. As for using passwordless keys, that assumes you can key the remote machine, which isn’t always the case. With the IBackup service I was detailing here, that’s not an option for example. Though it does work perfectly well of course.

      Thanks for pointing this out!

  10. Excellent article. I have been using MySQL for quite sometime and know the importance of having regular good backup :).

  11. Very nice script for backup mysql database. Last year I wrote own script:

    Post is wrote in polish language, but You will understand script in bash 🙂 My script dump all databases in diffrent files, so We can simply restore only one database (not all databases).

  12. Thanks for this. One thing. Since ibackup.com is more per GB than a standard VPS, why do you use it? I would just buy a basic Linux VPS from some hosting company and send my back-ups there. And I’d have a spare server to do things with, if I needed. Does ibackup have some great feature I’m missing over a VPS?

    • Hi Greg:

      So the short answer is that just using a VPS somewhere else works just fine. iBackup has a few extra advantages.

      1) All they do is backups. They probably don’t have the sorts of issues that normal ISPs have to deal with (DDOS attacks, bad neighbor effects, etc). So their uptime is just great.

      2) They are really super good about backing up whatever you have with them with their own backup systems. So your data is even *more* backed up. And more is better when it comes to backups IMO.

      But honestly, sending backups off to another server in another data center is just fine too if it’s cost sensitive.

  13. Nice article Chris!

    Great to get the info behind your script, and why its best to just go straight into the shell and back it up 🙂

    Keep up the good work!

  14. The solution from above is good, but not the best such as a dedicated commercial backup solution. What can I say, I am using this kind of solution for almost a couple of years. R1Soft’s CDP Server + MySQL add-on does the job very well, but takes a different approach. It has less server load since it uses disk snapshots, and less traffic since it uses incremental backups. The admin panel makes the backup/restore to be an idiot proof operation. The CDP Agent may have some quirks, but overall the Server + Agents combination it is a great solution, not only for MySQL.

    // Just a CDP Server satisfied customer

  15. Sandstream on February 5, 2010 at 9:28 am said:

    Nice article!

    Any ideas of how to do it on a Windows machine?

  16. Nice tutorial. And if you are lazy like me and looking for an all-in-one backup solution providing several storage methods, you should definitely have a look at Backup-manager (http://www.backup-manager.org/).

  17. Thanks for a great post – you have opened my eyes to some new techniques for making MySQL backups easier!

    @John, great tip on bzip – I’ve used it in the past for MySQL backup files and the compression is amazing compared to gzip.

  18. Hi Chris,

    Nice writeup. I find that I can never find a simple, effective backup script for MySQL when I’m starting a new project on a host without any kind of backup facilities, so it’s nice to have a point of reference!

    I just wanted to note that in terms of worrying about locks, one way to avoid having to setup a slave for a busy DB is to store the DB data files on an XFS partition (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xfs). I used this once with a relatively small project when I didn’t want to deal with the headaches of MySQL replication, and it worked pretty well.

    The trick is to take advantage of XFS’s support for snapshots. Basically, a snapshot of a drive can be taken at an exact INSTANT and survive for long enough for a dump to be taken from it. So instead of:

    -locking all tables/databases
    -dumping all data (which, as you said, can easily take 15+ seconds)
    -unlocking all tables/databases

    You can just:

    -lock all tables/databases
    -take an XFS snapshot (which usually takes < 2 seconds)
    -unlock all tables/databases (freeing up the DB to handle requests)

    Then, at your leisure,
    -launch a secondary MySQL server using the snapshot's DB data files
    -perform a dump from this secondary server
    -stop the secondary server and delete the snapshot

    This frees up the DB server almost immediately, ensures atomized data, and avoids the effort of configuring and maintaining a replication setup (which, given MySQL replication's tendency to short-circuit, can definitely be a plus).

    Setting up XFS isn't usually too difficult, although it's much easier to do when you already have a free partition. Most newer Linux kernels have no problem supporting it, and as far as I know, it performs pretty admirably.


    • We’ve used this XFS snapshot model with great success (we have really big database for which MySQLDump is just not practical).

      Works well within Amazon EC2 as well.

      • Yup, snapshotting is an excellent option. I didn’t go into it here for two reasons:

        1) A lot of people these days are using VPS servers where you don’t have the ability to do snapshots. You can on some, you can’t on others.

        2) Even if you’re just running bare metal boxes, you may not have a filesystem that supports snapshotting. Most people just run with defaults and that usually means ext3 these days (no snapshots).

        But yes, it’s a great and easy option if it’s available. I was just shooting for something that would always work. Thanks for pointing it out!

  19. @austinsiewert Yup, the mysqldumper tool is great for small databases. What I was going for here is applicable to larger databases that you can’t sanely email around even when compressed, and I went ahead with the encryption step as well. If you don’t have too much data, by which I mean email is a real option, and you’re okay with the data being exposed over the wire then mysqldumper is absolutely an easier way to go. Just depends on the use case. Thanks for making a note of it though!

  20. My bulletproof setup is MySQLDumper (http://www.mysqldumper.net/), very easy to setup and configure for backups with a cron job.

    I currently have a (mt) dv account with multiple sites that runs nightly at 3am, dumps the db’s, zips ’em, and emails them to me. Quite nice, and like I said before, easy to setup.

  21. A nice article with a lot of info in it. The only thing I’d point out is that in the script you’re currently doing two writes to the filesystem when creating the compressed backup. If you use bzip (not sure whether gzip does stdin compression) you could change lines 91 – 95 to:

    $MYSQLDUMP –opt –databases $DB_NAMES | $BZIP2 -c > $DUMPDIR/$IBACKUP_DEST-$DATE.mysql.bz2

    This means if you have a particularly large database backup you’re not hitting the disk with a large file and then freeing it up immediately. I’m also not about to advocated bzip over gzip but I’ve found better compression with bzip and my backups.

  22. As a beginner web developer with no experience in this sort of thing, this will be really useful. Thanks!

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