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5 Design Tips Every Developer Should Know

Great code and great design need each other to work well. Unfortunately, people with poor visual design skills often think they lack natural ability. In other words, there’s a common belief that you’re either born with the gift of aesthetic super powers, or you’re not. I don’t agree with this sentiment.

Just think about it for a second: If you stopped writing when you were 5 years old, you would probably be terrible at writing. The same is true for art and design. Most people stop making art right as they’re starting to master finger painting.

Fortunately, it’s never too late to learn. In fact, the added maturity makes it easier to learn a subjective topic from an objective viewpoint.

If you wear a lot of hats in a small team, or if you feel like your projects could be more successful if they looked better, this is for you. Here are five traditional elements and principles of art and design that will cure the ugly (or at least disguise it).

1. Use Negative Space

Most developers don’t pay attention to margin, padding, line-height, or any other CSS properties that add space. It’s easy to tell when a developer has designed an interface: Text runs right up against edges with no space around it and the separation between screen elements is created with lines rather than with space.

In the upper box, the text runs up against the edge and there’s no spacing between each line. The second example is much easier to read and feels more intentional.

In the domain of fine art, the area between elements is called negative space, although in other areas of design it’s often referred to as “white space.” Negative space lets the viewer quickly identify the various parts of a design. It also makes text more readable.

Here are some tips:

Simply by using space, already you’re 100% better than most developers that attempt design work.

2. Create Contrast through Value

In music, there’s a concept called dynamics. You add emotion by playing some parts of the song at a soft volume so that loud portions sound loud, and vice versa. The same idea is true in design. When everything is bold, nothing is bold.

These letters are music dynamic indications, arranged from soft to loud: Piano, mezzo-piano, mezzo-forte, and forte. In design, you can adjust the visual volume by using light and dark colors. The gradient at the bottom of this image is called a value scale.

Value is a term used to describe the lightness or darkness of a color. When a light and a dark value are placed next to one another, it creates a contrast. Contrast helps the viewer identify what’s important. For example, instructional text on a form element is probably less important than a form label, so you should use a smaller font size or use grey colored text instead of strong black text. If a form label says Email: in dark bold lettering, you might need to add some supplemental text below that assures the visitor you won’t use the address they provide for nefarious purposes. This additional text isn’t as important, so you should make it look “quieter” than everything else.

When you edit your profile on Treehouse, you can type in a special URL for yourself. The dark text indicates what your unique identifier will be, and the light text fills in the rest of the URL so you know what it will ultimately look like.

The visual weight of text isn’t the only thing to keep in mind. You also need to make sure that there’s a good mix of value (light and dark areas) so that it’s easy to discern the separation between screen elements. This is a useful visual tool, because the human eye is much more capable of perceiving differences in value than differences in color.

Here are some tips:

In nearly every art form, beginners are tempted to raise the volume on everything. Lowering the volume is a sign of maturity, and helps to highlight the most important parts.

3. Add Variety with Texture

Most things in the real world are not completely flat and smooth. Texture adds variety to your interfaces. Even if you’re not trying to replicate a real surface with skueomorphism, it’s still a good idea to add a little bit of texture in a few places. Inspiration for textures are all around, in paper, metal, and stone. Even blocks of text can be considered textural. Often times, a little bit of random noise is enough to set your design apart from other flat and boring pages.

Texture suggests character and history in otherwise mundane objects.

Here are some texture tips:

4. Shape Things Up

In web design, the most overlooked element of art is shape. It might seem very obvious that there are lots of two dimensional shapes in the world, but HTML and CSS lean pretty hard towards rectangles. In fact, “the box model” is one of the most important CSS concepts to grasp. When you’re buried in code and just trying to get a database connection to work or position a background properly, it can be easy to forget something so fundamental. Non-rectangular shapes can draw attention to critically important page elements.

The arrow-like shape of the back button in iOS both draws attention and communicates function.

Just because our tools are geared towards rectangles doesn’t mean we can’t bend the rules and make other shapes. In fact, CSS allows you to create some fairly complex shapes with a little effort.

Here’s why you should use shape:

On a related note, don’t ever let the tools define your imagination. Design first, then figure out what’s actually possible.

5. Bring in the Balance

Before you spend hours arranging every pixel and working detail into a page, it’s important to take a step back and look at the big picture. Visual balance is one of the most difficult concepts to teach with clear and direct language, but this is an instinct that can be developed quickly.

In the painting Starry Night, Van Gogh balanced the heavy dark shape on the left with a rising horizon line on the right. The brightness and unique shape of the crescent moon helps to anchor the upper right against the black void in the bottom left.

Balance is one way to think about the composition or layout of a design. It refers to the amount of visual weight that is placed on one area versus another area. This is important to get right: An unbalanced page can create a bad feeling of tension. In rare cases you can use balance to intentionally create tension (such as a website for a horror film), but on most functional web applications, this should be avoided.

It’s usually pretty easy to glance at a design and decide if one side feels heavier than another. There might be too many elements, too much contrast, too much color, and so on, versus the other side of the design. It’s also important to think about the top of the design versus the bottom, although on a vertically scrolling web page (as most web pages are), this isn’t as important as horizontal balance.

Here are some tips to make a page feel more balanced:


These basic elements and principles make it easy to think about design. They certainly won’t give you mystical artistic powers, but they should help you create some decent looking web pages. If you have more tips like these, I’d love to hear about them in the comments!

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